Tuesday, May 18, 2021

DRDO's 2-DG Drug To Be Launched Next Week

 DRDO's 2-DG Drug To Be Launched Next Week

The primary group of DRDO drug '2-DG' will be given its underlying dispatch with 10,000 portions one week from now. Educating about this, DRDO authorities said that they increase creation for its future use in the treatment of Covid patients. This medication has been made by a group of DRDO researchers, including Dr. Anant Narayan Bhatt. 

"The primary cluster of 10,000 portions of 2-DG medication for the treatment of Covid-19 contaminated patients would be dispatched right on time one week from now and will be given to patients," a DRDO official was cited as saying. 

What is the 2-DG and Which organization has created it? 

The 2-DG is a 2-deoxy-D-glucose drug that will be given as an enemy of Covid-19 remedial application. It will be given as an extra treatment or an elective treatment, and its motivation is to help the essential treatment. It comes in powder structure in sachets, which is to be taken orally by dissolving in water. 

It has been created by the Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences (INMAS), a lab of Defense Research and Development Organization (DRDO), in a joint effort with Dr Reddys Laboratories (DRL), Hyderabad. 

How does 2DG assistance in the treatment of Covid patients? 

The Clinical preliminary aftereffects of the 2-DG drug have shown that this particle helps in quicker recuperation of hospitalized patients and decreases supplemental oxygen reliance. A higher extent of patients treated with 2-DG showed RT-PCR negative change in Covid patients. DRDO has expressed that the medication would be good for individuals experiencing Covid-19. 

"The medication is relied upon to save valuable lives because of the instrument of activity of the medication in tainted cells. This likewise diminishes the emergency clinic stay of COVID-19 patients," the protection service had expressed. 

How does 2DG diminish Oxygen reliance? 

The 2 DG drug is said to deal with infection contamination spread into lungs which can assist specialists with diminishing patients constancy on oxygen. 

"It collects in the infection contaminated cells and forestalls infection development by halting viral amalgamation and energy creation. Its particular gathering in virally tainted cells makes this medication one of a kind," the service had said upon endorsement. 

When and how did testing of 2DG medication happen? 

In April 2020, during the primary rush of the Coronavirus pandemic, INMAS-DRDO researchers led lab explores different avenues regarding the assistance of the Center for Cellular and Molecular Biology (CCMB), Hyderabad, and tracked down that this atom works adequately against the SARS-CoV-2 infection and represses the viral development. 

In light of these outcomes, the Drugs Controller General of Indias (DCGI) Central Drugs Standard Control Organization (CDSCO) is said to have allowed Phase-2 clinical preliminary of 2-DG in Covid-19 patients in May 2020. 

The DRDO, alongside its industry accomplice DRL in Hyderabad, begun clinical preliminaries to test the wellbeing and adequacy of the medication in Covid-19 patients. 

Stage 2 preliminaries which included portion running were directed during May-October 2020 and the medication was discovered to be protected in Coronavirus patients. It showed huge improvement in their recuperation, Phase-2 was led in six emergency clinics on 110 patients and Phase 2b (portion running) clinical preliminary was led at 11 clinics the nation over. 

What have Phase 3 preliminaries finished up? 

In light of victories, DCGI permitted Phase-3 clinical preliminaries in November 2020. Stage 3 clinical preliminaries were led on 220 patients between December 2020 to March 2021 out of 27 Covid medical clinics in Delhi, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal, Gujarat, Rajasthan, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu. 

Nitty gritty information of Phase 3 clinical preliminary were introduced to DCGI. A huge improvement was seen in side effects experienced by patients. A comparable pattern was found in patients more established than 65 years. 

Other than the 2DG, DRDO has concocted another imaginative arrangement called the Oxycare System which enhances the utilization of oxygen and diminishes the responsibility and openness of medical care suppliers by disposing of the need to regularly gauge and make manual acclimations to oxygen stream.

The Chemistry of Corona drug developed by DRDO is said to be a big game changer. It is 2-Deoxy-D+Glucose (2-DG) which is likely to be marketed very soon. The hero behind this discovery is said to be the Scientist, Dr. Anil Kumar Mishra who obtained his M.Sc.(Chemsitry) degree from Gorakhpur University in 1984 and Ph.D degree in 1988 from Banaras Hindu University. His research is mainly based on Molecular Biology and Organic synthesis. After doing the post doctoral research, he has worked as visiting Professor in different foreign countries like France, California (USA) and Max Plank, Germany. He joined DRDO as Sr. Scientist in the year 1997.

2-DG is a mimic of D-Glucose prepared by replacing -OH group at C2 by H-atom. Hence, the name 2-Deoxy-D-Glucose meaning removal of oxygen from 2nd carbon. Being mimic of D- Glucose, it gets easy passage into the cells where Corona virus is already present.

Glucose breaks down into two three carbon compounds one of them being pyruvate anion (CH3COCOO-) with release of energy. It is a metabolic process called Glycolysis. It is this energy on which all living organism survive. Corona virus also survives on this energy. Unlike D-Glucose, 2-DG is unfit for glycolysis.No energy is evolved. The sustaining of life becomes difficult and as such Corona virus dies within a week in want of energy. It is said that this drug also lowers the oxygen dependence of patients.This drug is also antitumour/anticancer by the same mechanism.If it is able to destroy killer Corona virus, crores of precious lives will be saved.Thank you DRDO.

The science behind the 2DG drug for Covid-19 developed by DRDO: 10,000 doses of 2DG by DRDO is expected to be released next week  ! Hopefully, Mass-scale production is ramping up will start soon at Hyderabad and likely at other centers! The principle of operation is simple: "Cheat the Cheater"! You know that any virus, once inside the body, makes its own copies by cheating our human cells and takes their protein to multiply itself! The brilliant thought process by Indian scientists was simple! For every doubling of virus cell, it needs energy (glucose!). So, the medicine is simply a "Pseudo" Glucose which the multiplying virus intakes but actually, this glucose makes it neuter (unable to multiply!). Thus 'Cheating the cheater' once the rapid multiplication of virus is halted, our own anti bodies can readily combat it and overpower within hours! Simply Genius ! Be proud of Indian scientists!

Monday, May 17, 2021

DPT Vaccine -Diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis vaccine

 DPT Vaccine -Diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis vaccine

DPT Vaccine -Diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis vaccine

(i) What is tetanus-diphtheria and pertussis?

Tetanusdiphtheria, and pertussis (whooping cough) are serious bacterial infections. Tetanus causes painful tightening of the muscles, usually all over the body. It can lead to “locking” of the jaw. Diphtheria usually affects the nose and throat.
Whooping cough causes uncontrollable coughing. Vaccines can protect you from these diseases. In the U.S., there are four combination vaccines:

(ii) What is in the DTaP vaccine? Dtap vaccine ingredients.

Each 0.5-mL dose of Adacel® (Sanofi Pasteur) contains 5 Lf tetanus toxoid, 2 Lf diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis antigens (2.5 µg detoxified PT, 5 µg FHA, 3 µg pertactin, 5 µg FIM).

(iii) DPT Vaccine provides protection against?

DPT Vaccine provide protection against Diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis caused by Cornybacterium diptherai, Bordetella pertussis and Clostridium tetani respectively

(iv) Do you need Tdap if you had DTaP?

Since the first DTaP was received before 12 months of age and one Tdap dose has been given, this person needs one dose of Td or Tdap 6 calendar months after the Tdap dose.
A routine Td or 
Tdap booster should be administered every 10 years.

(v) What is the difference between DTaP and Tdap?

DTaP is approved for children under age 7. 
Tdap, which has less amount of dose of diphtheria and pertussis vaccines, is approved for children from age 11 and adults ages 19 to 64.
It is usually also called a booster dose because it boosts the immunity that wanes from vaccines are given at ages 4 to 6.

(vi) Diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis vaccine DPT vaccine India .

The followings of the and Diptheria, tetanus pertussis vaccine an available in India
• Diphtheria, tetanus, and whole-cell pertussis vaccine. commonly know as triple antigen. Different combination of DTwp are available such as

— Quadrivalent (DTwp + Hib)
– Pentavalent (DTwp + Hib+ HB)
– Hexavalent (DTwp + Hib+ HB+ IPV)
• DTaP Diphtheria, tetanus, and acellular pertussis vaccine
•Different combinations of DTaP vaccines are avilable such as
– Pentavalent( DTAP + Hib +HB)
-Hexavalent (DTaP+Hib + HB +IPV
• Tdap Diphtheria, tetanus, and acellular vaccine (reduced antigen content
• DT : Diphtheria and tetanus vaccine
•Td Diphtheria (reduced-dose) and tetanus vaccine

(vii) DPT Vaccine side effects .

Mild adverse events
Fever, irritability, drowsiness, loss of appetite and vomiting
Severe adverse effects
Hight fever, persistent crying, hypotonic, hyporesponsive, episode (HHE)
Encephalopathy, Dravet syndrome, anaphylaxis and Guillain barre syndrome (GBS)

Dpt vaccine route

0.5 mL administered IM anterolateral thigh or deltoid

(viii) DPT Vaccine Schedule

• Primary 3 doses at 6 ,10, 14 weeks
•First booster 15-18 months
•2nd booster: 4 to 6 months
• Tdap /Td 10-12 years. 16 years

If missed the DPT Vaccine ( Gap in the series)
•complete the series
•Do not restart

Below 7 years
• DTwP/ DTaP 0,1 ,2,6 MONTHS
2nd booster not required if last dose administered at >4 years

Above 7 years
•Tdap 0 dose then Td 1, 6 months
•Td every 10 years after this 11-18years
•Tdap 1 dose
•Later Td every 10 years

(ix)Special comments

•DTaP may be preferred to DTwP in children with a history of severe adverse effects after the previous dose of DTwP or children with neurological disorders.
• DTwP/DTaP vaccine must not be used in children in 7 years or older because of increased reactogenicity (Use Tdap/Td instead )
•In principle the same type of wp/Ap containing vaccine should be given.
throughout the primary source of vaccination. However, if the previous type of vaccine is unknown or unavailable any wp/ap may be used for subsequent doses.

(x) Type of Vaccine

With whole cell pertussis(wp) vaccine or acellular pertussis vaccine(aP)


Saturday, May 15, 2021

Sputnik V Covid vaccine imported to cost Rs 995, Made in India shots may be cheaper

 Sputnik V Covid vaccine imported  to cost Rs 995, Made in India shots may be cheaper

The imported dosages of Russia's Sputnik V Covid-19 immunization will cost ₹995.40 per shot, said the organization's accomplice in India Dr Reddy's Laboratories on Friday. 

The cost incorporates a GST of 5% on each portion. 

In any case, the dosages of the antibody that will be made in India are required to be less expensive. 

The principal portion of the immunization was additionally managed in Hyderabad on Friday as a component of a restricted pilot and delicate dispatch of Sputnik V in India. 
The antibody is probably going to be accessible in the market from one week from now, the Center had said on Thursday in the midst of different states confronting an intense lack. 

"I'm glad to say that we're cheerful that it'll be accessible in the market one week from now. We're confident that the offer of the restricted stock that has come from that point (Russia), will start one week from now," Niti Aayog VK Paul said. 

The nation is hoping to create 15.6 crore portions of the Russian Covid antibody. 

"Its creation will start in July and it is assessed that 15.6 crore dosages will be fabricated around there," Paul said. 

The main transfer of imported portions of the Sputnik V antibody had arrived in India on 1 May. 

It is the third immunization India has given approval to after 'Covishield', created by Oxford University and AstraZeneca and 'Covaxin', the native antibody produced by Bharat Biotech. Covishield is made by Serum Institute of India. 

With an adequacy of 91.6%, Sputnik V was the principal antibody against Covid on the planet. Clinical preliminary information distributed in The Lancet demonstrated that the Covid-19 immunization "seems protected and compelling". 

In excess of 60 nations had enlisted Sputnik V for crisis use and the majority of these nations had effectively gotten the principal cluster of the antibody. 

Russia has been effectively promoting Sputnik V abroad regardless of the similarly lethargic rollout at home and restricted creation limits, as indicated by reports.

Friday, May 14, 2021

Covid-19 Vaccine Registration


Covid-19 Vaccine Registration!
How you can register using 4-digit code – Complete Guide CoWIN launches key OTP upgrade; here’s 

How to register on CoWIN portal for Covid-19 vaccination and how to use the 4-digit security code:

Step 1: Visit the official website of CoWIN i.e. https://www.cowin.gov.in/

Step 2: Click on the register button; fill up your contact details and register your mobile number

Step 3: You will get an OTP (one-time-password) on your mobile through SMS; enter the OTP to get into CoWIN portal. If you have already registered, just sign in.

Step 4: Enter your location, district, and state. You can even enter the PIN code of the vaccination centre of your area.

Step 5: Then you will be able to see all nearby vaccination centres and slots. Click on the green slot of preference, select a time slot, and confirm the booking

Step 6: After which you will get a four-digit security code as a text message on your registered mobile number. The four-digit code will be required to authenticate your booking on the vaccination day.

Step 7: After getting vaccinated, you can log in to CoWIN portal to download your vaccine certificate.

Monday, May 10, 2021

Immunization of a pregnant women

 Vaccination for Pregnant Women (Maternal Immunization)

Immunization of pregnant women enables a number of important health benefits for the mother and the baby Vaccines containing live, attenuated organisms pose a theoretical risk to the fetus. Therefore, live vaccines are contraindicated during pregnancy it is advised for women to avoid conception for 4 weeks after vaccination with live vaccines However, there are more benefits to vaccinating pregnant women than potential risks in the following circumstances when the likelihood of disease exposure is high, when infection would pose a risk to the mother or fetus, and when the vaccine is unlikely to cause harm.

Recommendations for Vaccination in Pregnant Women

• Tdap is recommended in pregnant women for the prevention of infant pertussis irrespective of whether they have previously received Tdap

• If pregnant women are not vaccinated with Tdap during pregnancy, then it should be immediately administered postpartum

• Pregnant women who are not vaccinated or are only partially vaccinated against tetanus should complete the primary series with at least one of the doses being Tdap

• Women for whom Td is indicated but who did not complete the recommended three-dose series during pregnancy should receive follow-up after delivery to ensure that the series is completed

• There is a high risk for severe illness and complications from influenza in pregnant and postpartum women, compared to women who are not pregnant Thus, routine vaccination with the inactivated influenza vaccine is recommended for all women who are or will be pregnant (in any trimester) during the influenza season.

• Pregnant women who are at a risk for exposure to wild-type poliovirus can be given IPV. The high-risk group includes

.•  Travelers to areas or countries where polio is epidemic or endemic. Members of communities or specific population groups with disease caused by wild polioviruses

• Laboratory workers who handle specimens that might contain polioviruses

• Healthcare personnel who have close contact with patients who might be excreting wild polioviruses. Children,            whose parents are unvaccinated against polio, will receive oral poliovirus vaccine

• It is advised to administer vaccines, such as Hep A, pneumococcal polysaccharide, meningococcal conjugate, and meningococcal polysaccharide, to women who are at a higher risk for these infections.

• Pregnant women who have to travel to yellow fever-prevalent areas should receive the yellow fever vaccine, as the limited theoretical risk after receiving the vaccination is outweighed by the risk for yellow fever infection. However, appropriate counseling of the same must be done

• Hepatitis B vaccine can be administered to pregnant women for whom it is indicated

• It is contraindicated to administer MMR and varicella vaccine-containing during pregnancy However, if a pregnant woman is vaccinated unknowingly with MMR or varicella counseling about the theoretical basis of concern for the fetus should be provided. However, MMR or varicella vaccination should not be a reason for terminating the      pregnancy

•  There should be no change in the schedule of rotavirus vaccination for infants living in households with pregnant       women
• Evidence of immunity to rubella and varicella and presence of HBsAg should be evaluated during every pregnancy .• Women should be vaccinated immediately after delivery if there is no evidence of immunity to rubella and             varicella    A second dose of varicella should be administered 4-8 weeks later

• If a pregnant woman is tested to be HBsAg-positive, she should be carefully monitored and the infant should              receive HBIG and hepatitis vaccines within 12 hours of birth

Saturday, May 8, 2021

Immunization schedule for children

 Immunization schedule for children recommend by IMA in India







Birth( Within)






24 to 72hrs




Left upper arm

Conventionally given on thi site



2 Drops





Hep B-0

0.5 mL


Left thigh

Mandatory before discharge (preferably within 24-72 hours of birth )

6 Weeks




Anterolateral aspect of thigh

Use Combination vaccine whenever possible


Hib- 1



















0.5-2 mL


Squirt toward buccal mucosa

-If RV5/ RV116E , 3 doses one month apart

-if Rv1, 2  dose one month apart
-First dose of rotavirus vaccine not be adminstrited after 16 weeks

-Last dose of rotavirus not to be adminstrited after 6 months for RV1 , and not after 32 weeks for others.


10 Weeks




Anterolateral aspect of thigh



Hib- 2










2 doses of IPV instead of 3 doses if started at 8 weeks age . If so dose to be administered 8 weeks apart















0.5-2 mL


Squirt toward buccal mucosa

2 Doses of RV1







14 Weeks




Anterolateral aspect of thigh



Hib- 3

























0.5-2 mL


Squirt toward buccal mucosa

RV5/RV116E is administered as 3 doses







6 Months




Squirt toward

If following 0,1 & 6 months schedule


OPV- 1

2 Drops





IIV- 1











7 Months

IIV- 2











9 Months

OPV- 2

2 Drops









After 270 complete days


Meningococcal conjugate vaccine -1




High –risk groups







10 Months

Typhoid conjugate vaccine-1




At least 1 – month gap between MMR and TCV







12 Months

Hepatitis A (Killed or live )


IM (killed )or SC( live)


Single dose of Hepatitis A






In endemic areas < 3 years age


Cholera vaccine




Hyperdemic /outbreaks : 2 doses adminstired 2 weeks apart and a booster dose after 2 years







13 Months





In endemic areas < 3 years age







15 Months

MMR -2

















15- 18 Months

PCV - Booster











16- 18 Months

(Booster 1)




Combination vaccines preferred


IPV- Booster






Hib- Booster











18 Months

Hepatitis A




2nd dose for killed vaccine







2 years

Typhoid conjugate-2 or Typhoid polysaccharide



Upper arm

-Polysaccharide typhoid vaccine repeated every 2-3 yearly

-if a typhoid conjugate vaccine the first time at / after 2 years , a single dose will suffice



Meningococcal -2




If Meningococcal conjugate vaccine is being given at first time at /after 2 years  a single dose will suffice








4 – 6 years

(Booster 2)




OPV upto 5 years of age












2nd dose of varicella may be given 3 months after first dose













9 Years onwars( girls)





If started before the 15th completed birthday , give 2 doses 6 months apart

- if started after 15th completed birthday , 3 doses to be given

-if HPV4-0,2,6 months

-if HPV2-0, 1, 6 months







10 years





Tdap is preferred over TD







16 Years

Td/ TT




Repeat every 10 years

Immunization schedule table, vaccination chart for babies in India, newborn baby vaccination chart pdf, immunization schedule 2020 pdf, child vaccination chart government India, Immunization schedule chart, vaccination age chart

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