Polio vaccine

Frequently asked questions about Polio Vaccine

1.When was the polio vaccine developed? Polio vaccine history Polio vaccine inventor .

The first polio vaccine, Was developed in the early 1950s by American physician Jonas Salk it is called inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) or Salk vaccine. It is given by injection and contained killed virus .The mass-scale use of Vaccine started in February 1954,it was monitotred on
American school children. Since 2000, only Inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) is given in the United States .Depending on the patient’s age Inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) is given in the leg or arm .
In the 1960s oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) or Sabin vaccine a second type of polio vaccine,named after his inventor name A American physician and microbiologist Albert Sabin was developed. OPV Vacccine given orally it contains live attenuated(weakened) virus .


2.Why is Polio vaccine given?

Provides protection against poliomyelitis (or polie) caused by poliovirus types 1.2 or 3 . It prevent Polio paralysis by preventing the spread of poliovirus to the nervous system an infectious disease of the nervous system.

3.Polio vaccine schedule


• OPV is administered at birth (within 24-72 hours atter birth or at least not afer than 1 week after birth).
• IPV1.2 and 3 are administered at 6. 10. and 14 weeks respectively followed by a booster dose at 15-18 months.
• The second third and fourth doses of OPV are administered at 5 months 9 months and cunng 4-6 years of age, respectively

4.Polio vaccine for adults

Adults who are never been vaccinated against polio should get 3 doses of IPV: The first dose at any time,
The second dose 1 to 2 months later,
The third dose 6 to 12 months after the second.


5.. Polio vaccine name

Polio vaccine available as OPV and IPV in India
• Inactivated polio vaccine is available as a stand-alone injection or as a combination with diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis hepatitis B and or Hib.


6. Polio vaccine ingredients

OPV Vacccine given orally it contains live attenuated(weakened) virus .
a) OPV: Live, attenuated vaccine (Sabin.
Bivalent)
b) iPV Inactivated polio vaccine Salk.
trivalent)

7.Dose of Polio Vaccine


• Dosage of OPV. Two drops administered through mouth .
• Dosage of IPV: 0.5 mL of intramuscular injection on anterolateral outer) mid-thigh in infants and children


CATCH-UP IMMUNIZATION:
• Inactivated polio vaccine can be administered in two doses 2 months apart, followed by a booster after 6 months of the previous dose




8.Side effects of Polio Vaccine

• With OPV, vaccine associated paralytic polio (VAPP) can occur in approximately 1 in 27 milion doses
• IPV may cause injection-site redness swelling and soreness


9. Storage of Polio Vaccine


OPV is very heat-sensitive; t must be kept frozen (up to -20°C) during long- term storage (After thawing, it can be kept between 2°C and B’c for a maximum of six months or can be refrozen).
• IPV is stored at +2C and +8c do not freeze




10. SPECIAL COMMENTS:


• Postpone vaccination the child has moderate-to-severe illness ( with the temperature >39 C).
• Always check color of inner square on the vaccine vial monitor (VVM) on the OPV vial. If it changes to same color as an outer circle or darker discard the vaccine